AÇAÍ OIL (Euterpe oleracea)

USES AND BENEFITS :

Açaí oil is a gift from nature to our health and can be consumed as food or used in cosmetics – especially those that aim to protect the skin. Due to its impressive hydration capacity, its application is recommended to moisturize and repair dry skin, and to help treat psoriasis and acne. All this is due to its composition; in addition to oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic oils, the açaí oil is also full of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol phytosterols, which are widely used by the cosmetics industry in the prevention of skin aging and in the reduction of inflammatory processes. In addition to these substances, a part of the phenolic compounds present in the açaí fruit passes into the oil; substances such as vanillic acid, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, which makes this oil special.

For the treatment of dry or frizzy hair, açaí oil is an excellent hydrating option to be applied after the shower. Only a few drops should be put on the palm of the hand to massage the hair, but not the scalp.

Cold pressed açaí oil can be consumed due to its high content of oleic and linoleic acid, which is similar to that of olive oil. Research has confirmed the anticarcinogenic effect of vaccenic acid due to its conversion to cis-9, trans-11 CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) via delta-9 desaturase. (POLLAR et al, 1980) (HA et al (1987). Açaí oil has approximately 3.0 to 4.5% of vaccenic acid. (See the composition below.)

SPECIFICATIONS:

PRODUCT NAME: Açaí oil

INCI: Euterpe Oleracea Fruit Oil

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Euterpe oleracea

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Brazil

PRODUCT CODE: G003 / 5.0L – G004 / 10L

MANUFACTURING METHOD: cold pressed

CAS NUMBER: / 861902-11-6

EINCS NUMBER: not applicable

NCM: 1515.90.40

PACK SIZES: 5,0 L – 10 ,0 L

SECONDARY PACKAGING: cardboard box with 2 x 5 kg or 1 x 10 kg.

STORAGE: keep the container tightly closed, stored in a cool, ventilated place and protected from light.

EXPIRY DATE: under normal storage conditions, 24 months after manufacture.

AÇAI OIL – SPECIFICATIONS
CHARACTERISTICS UNIT VALUES
Appearance (25 oC) liquid
Color purple / greenish
Odor characteristic
Acid value % weight < 15,0
Peroxide value 10 meq 02/kg < 10,0
Iodine value g I2/kg 60 – 90
Saponification value mgKOH/g 180 – 200
Unsaponifiable value % < 2
Density 25 oC g/ml 0,9688 – 0,9880
Refractive index (40 oC) 1,46 – 1,47
Melting temp. oC 4

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

Palmitic acid (C16:0) % weight 17 – 28
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1) % weight 2,0 – 6,0
Stearic acid (C18:0) % weight 1,5 – 6,0
Oleic acid (C18:1 – Omega 9) % weight 40,0 – 60,0
Vaccenic acid (C18:1 Cis 11) % weight 3,0 – 4,5
Linoleic acid (C18:2 – Omega 6) % weight 10,0 – 22,0
Saturated % 28
Unsaturated % 72

BOTANICAL INFORMATION:

Açaí, Euterpe oleracea C. Martius, is found throughout the Amazon basin and is particularly abundant in its eastern part. It is one of the most typical palm trees in Pará, dominating the landscape where it appears, sometimes in almost completely pure formations, preferring wetlands and humid soil with high natural regeneration.

There are two main varieties; E. oleracea, which occurs most frequently in the Amazon River estuary, and E. precatória, common in the forests of the Western Amazon (Amazonas, Acre, Rondônia, Roraima). E. oleracea has an abundant tillering that, without handling, can reach up to 20 strains, forming what is called a “clump”. This fact makes it, unquestionably, an ideal species for a rational and permanent exploitation of the heart of palm and fruits. Ergo, the removal of the heart of the palm can be performed by cutting only a few selected stipes, year after year, without killing that individual stipe that can sprout again. This removal of older stipes corresponds to an appropriate handling of this palm. On the other hand, the E. precatoria variety grows one isolated stem with no clusters, which inhibits the concomitant exploitation of its palm and fruit.

ECOLOGY:

The açaí palm occurs particularly in lowland areas where the forest is of the oligarchic type, with its dominant species being the açai palm (Prance, 1994). The oligarchic character of this forest is determined by the flood regime (Lima, 1956), because a reduced number of tree species has the adaptive mechanisms necessary to survive in soils with low oxygen tension (Anderson, 1986). In the case of açaí, these mechanisms are represented by morphological and anatomical adaptations, such as: roots that emerge from the stipe above the soil surface, presence of lenticels (Anderson, 1986) and aerenchyma in the roots (Menezes Neto, 1994). In addition, the species has physiological strategies to keep its seeds viable and its seedlings alive, even in conditions of total anoxia (for up to 20 and 16 days, respectively), in such a way that when the oxygen supply becomes adequate, the seeds germinate, and the seedlings resume their growth (Menezes Neto, 1994).

Due to its adaptive strategies, the opening of the stomata of the açai palm depends more on solar radiation than on a possible deficit of vapor pressure, and temporary floods do not affect water absorption when the roots are subjected to hypoxia conditions (Carvalho et al., 1998a). The fact that the seeds do not germinate and the seedlings are paralyzed or have its growth reduced in an anoxic environment explains the lower amount of individuals in permanently flooded areas, because in these circumstances, the establishment of new plants is limited to the possibility of seeds reaching sites with a slightly higher ground level than the water through natural dispersion, where they find sufficient oxygenation conditions to trigger the germination and seedling growth process. These sites are mainly represented by the remains of trees that fall naturally and allow for the accumulation of sediments and vegetable debris (Calzavara, 1972). In its natural habitat and in cultivated areas, it is found in both eutrophic and dystrophic soils. In the first case, it occupies predominantly Glei Soils in lowland areas. These soils are shallow silty-clay soils with good natural fertility due to the descent of floating debris in tidal waters. In the second case, it is found in Yellow Latosols of medium texture, which are characterized by being deep, friable, porous and by its high acidity and low natural fertility (Calzavara, 1972).

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SOURCE:

CAVALCANTE, P. B. Frutas Comestíveis da Amazônia, 6a Ed, Edições Cejup – Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, 1996.

FUENTES, V. M. et al. “Photodynamic therapy mediated by açai oil (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in nano emulsion: A potential treatment for melanoma”, Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, B: Biology 166, pp. 301–310, 2017.

GARBOSSA, W. A, C. et al. “Euterpe oleracea, Matricaria chamomilla, and Camellia sinensis as promising ingredients for development of skin care formulations”, Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, B: Biology 166, pp. 301–310, 2017.

ROGEZ, H. Açaí: Preparo, Composição e Melhoramento da Composição, Belém, EDUFPA, p. 313, 2000.

SHANLEY, P. et. al. Frutíferas e plantas úteis na vida amazônica, CIFOR, IMAZON, Editora Supercores, Belém, p. 300, 2005.

O ácido palmitoléico inibe a osteoclastogênese induzida por RANKL e a reabsorção óssea pela supressão das vias de sinalização de NF-κB e MAPKn Bernadette van Heerden , 1, † Abe Kasonga , 1, † Marlena C. Kruger , 2, 3 e Magdalena Coetzee 1, 3, *

Eng. Agr., MSc., Pesquisador da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Caixa Postal 48, CEP 66017-970, Belém – PA. E-mails: spadilha@cpatu.embrapa.br; urano@cpatu.embrapa.br; walnice@cpatu.embrapa.br